Britain`s action may not ignore the already stalled talks for a free trade agreement between Britain and the Bloc. “The outstanding issues are not difficult. They can be solved. What I`m saying to the Prime Minister is that you promised a good deal, keep going, negotiate,” he added. European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen said the cornerstone of diplomacy “must be respected” is “the basis for a prosperous future relationship.” On 6 September 2020, the Financial Times reported that the UK government was considering drafting new laws to circumvent the protocol of the Northern Ireland Withdrawal Agreement.  The new law would give ministers the power to determine which state aid should be notified to the EU and to define which products at risk of being transferred from Northern Ireland to Ireland (the withdrawal agreement stipulates that in the absence of a reciprocal agreement, all products are considered vulnerable).  The government defended this approach and stated that the legislation was in accordance with protocol and that it had only “clarified” the volumity in the protocol.  Ursula von der Leyen warned Johnson not to violate international law and said that the implementation of the withdrawal agreement by Britain was a “precondition for any future partnership”.  On 8 September, the Minister of Foreign Affairs for Northern Ireland, Brandon Lewis, told the British Parliament that the government`s internal market bill would “violate international law”.”  The Northern Ireland Protocol, known as the Irish Backstop, was an annex to the November 2018 draft agreement outlining provisions to avoid a hard border in Ireland after the UK`s withdrawal from the European Union.
The protocol provided for a provision of the safety net to deal with the circumstances in which satisfactory alternative arrangements were to come into force at the end of the transition period. This project has been replaced by a new protocol that will be described as follows. This book examines options for improving the compliance system under the Paris climate agreement, with the current focus. The research is based on two cases: the compliance mechanisms of the Montreal and Kyoto Protocols and their practical results. This book analyzed the different meanings of the concept of compliance mechanisms (CMs) and multilateral environmental agreements (MMA) in Chapter 3, on theories and two basic explanation models on compliance (Chapter 4), the development of MCs and traditional means restrictions (Chapter 5) and ISSUEs related to CMOs under the Kyoto and Montreal Protocols (Chapter 6). Based on the results, options for an improved compliance system under the Paris climate agreement are requested (Chapter 7). This book – provides a detailed understanding of compliance and existing compliance mechanisms (CMs), develops the current characteristics of CMs based on their case studies, contains the latest information on CMs and their case studies, examines options for improving the compliance system under the Paris climate agreement to identify current weaknesses. On 15 November 2018, the day after the agreement and the support of the British government were presented, several members of the government resigned, including Dominic Raab, Secretary of State for leaving the European Union.  These documents were presented to Parliament on October 19, prior to the vote in the House of Commons on the agreement and consideration in the House of Lords. On 19 October, a statement was also made to Parliament that a political agreement had been reached. The withdrawal agreement also contains provisions for the United Kingdom to leave the Convention setting the status of European schools, with the United Kingdom sticking to the convention and accompanying regulations on accredited European schools until the end of the last academic year of the transition period, namely: