Map of the Spanish Netherlands, the Union of Utrecht and the Union of Arras (1579). The spirit of free trade at the time was reinforced by the development of a modern and efficient stock market in the Netherlands.  In the Netherlands, there is the oldest stock exchange in the world, founded in 1602 by the Dutch East India Company, while Rotterdam has the oldest stock exchange in the Netherlands. The Dutch East India company`s exchanges went public in six different cities. Subsequently, a court ruled that the company must legally reside in a single city, so Amsterdam is recognized as the oldest institution of its kind on the basis of modern business principles. While the banking system developed in the Netherlands, it was quickly integrated by the well-connected English, which boosted England`s economic performance. In 1579, some provinces in the north of the Netherlands signed the Union of Utrecht, in which they supported each other in their defence against the army of Flanders. In 1581 followed the law on resignation, the declaration of independence of the provinces of Philip II. Dutch colonialism began when the Netherlands was able to remove a number of Portuguese and Spanish colonies, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. After the assassination of William of Orania on 10 July 1584, Henry III of France and Elizabeth I of England both rejected the proposals for sovereignty. However, he agreed to transform the United Provinces into the protectorate of England (The Nonsuch Treaty, 1585) and sent the Earl of Leicester as Governor General.
This was unsuccessful and in 1588 the provinces became a confederation. The Union of Utrecht is considered the foundation of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces, which was not recognized by Spain until 1648 by the peace of Westphalia. Xi. It is therefore agreed that if princes, lords, countries or neighbouring cities are allied with these provinces and want to participate in their confederation, they may be admitted by the common council and the agreement of those provinces. … was a member of the Union of Utrecht and in full communion with the Catholic Churches; In 2006, it concluded a limited communion agreement with Rome. The headquarters and seminary are located in Scranton, Pa., United States. In theory, city owners have been appointed and placed under their authority by the states of each province.
In practice, however, the princes of Oranian of the Oranian-Nassau house, starting with the breastfeeding of William, have always been chosen as owners of most provinces. Zeeland and generally Utrecht had the same owner of the city as Holland.