The U.S. Treasury has published model GIs that follow two approaches. In Model 1, the partner country`s financial institutions report information about U.S. accounts to the tax administration of the partner country. This tax authority then makes the information available to the United States. Model 1 is available in a cross-version (Model 1A) where the United States will also share information on the partner country`s taxpayers with the partner country and a non-reciprocal version (Model 1B). Under Model 2, financial institutions in partner countries go directly to the U.S. Internal Revenue Service and the partner country is committed to reducing all legal barriers to these reports.  Model 2 is available in two versions: 2A without a tax information exchange agreement (TIEA) or Double Tax Convention (DTC), and 2B for countries that already have a TIEA or DTC. Agreements generally require Parliamentary approval in the countries with which they are concluded, but the United States does not want these agreements to be ratified as a treaty. The IGA is simply a shortcut to an intergovernmental agreement. To implement FATCA, the U.S. government has developed two forms of AIG: the Model 1 and Model 2 agreements.
As part of a Model 1 agreement, foreign financial institutions report information about U.S.-related accounts to their national tax administration. The national tax authority then forwards this information to the U.S. government. Many Model 1 IGAs also include An Appendix II that lists country-specific financial institutions that are issued as compliant. In some countries, AIG Model 2 has addressed concerns that the FATCA regime may violate local or national laws. Under a Type 2 agreement, the financial body can provide information directly to the IRS. In April 2014, the U.S. Treasury and the IRS announced that all legal systems that enter into “essential agreements” and agree to the publication of their compliance status by July 1, 2014 were treated in such a way that they had an IGA until the end of 2014, ensuring that no sanctions were imposed during that period, while more jurisdictions had the opportunity to conclude formal IGas.   FATCA is used to locate U.S.
citizens (who live or not in the United States) and “persons for tax purposes” and collect and store information, including the total value of assets and social security number. The law is used to recognize assets rather than income. There is no provision in the act that imposes a tax. By law, financial institutions would report information they collect to the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (IRS). As implemented in intergovernmental agreements (IGA) (discussed below) with many countries, each financial institution will first send the U.S. person`s data to the local government. According to the Ukrainian IGA, for example, U.S. person data is sent to the United States through the Ukrainian government. Alternatively, in a non-IGA country, such as Russia, only the Russian bank stores the personal data of the United States and sends it directly to the IRS. The U.S.
Treasury Department (“Treasury”) and the IRS regularly publish updates that announce jurisdictions with an IGA in effect, through a listing on the Treasury and IRS websites.